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The World’s First Dedicated Totem-Pole PFC Digital Controller

Technology Cover
Data de postagem: 2024-01-18, HARTING

Given all the challenges and uncertainties the world is facing,  one thing is certain – we are unified for a greener planet. Under the initiative of decarbonization,  global players in the market and higher efficiency standards such as 80 PLUS Titanium are driving the power industry  towards the next level of efficient solutions with greater power density. Over the years of technological advancement,  designing compact and efficient Power Factor Correction (PFC) power supplies has been a complex yet manageable  challenge. It has been long since PFC performance had a fundamental breakthrough — until the proliferation of  third-generation power semiconductor devices (Gallium nitride, GaN and Silicon Carbide, SiC). Thereafter,  the beauty of Totem-Pole Bridgeless PFC (TPPFC) is fully unleashed.

Compared to traditional bridged PFC topologies, the TPPFC has three advantages. First,  it enables higher power density as it has fewer component counts since the rectifying bridge is not employed in this  topology. Moreover, such simplified circuitry further improves system efficiency,  particularly beneficial for situations with low-voltage input. Additionally,  the adaptation of GaN FETs not only boosts the efficiency even higher but also empowers Constant Current Mode (CCM) PFC  for higher power applications.

However, all these benefits come with a cost. Due to the absence of a bridge rectifier,  the input AC voltage is directly applied to the switching transistors in this topology. Thus the TPPFC circuit tends to  be vulnerable to unusual scenarios. For instance, surge, temporary missing of AC voltage, PCB noise,  to name a few. This is exactly why engineers hesitate to have their hands on this daunting task.

To harvest benefits without risking system robustness, Hynetek Semiconductor has launched the HP1010,  the very first dedicated PFC controller for Totem-Pole topology applications. A real-time control and hefty reliability  are seamlessly orchestrated by a fast state machine and high-performance analog front-end. The cycle-by-cycle current  limit (CBC) effectively prevents overcurrent issues caused by abnormal power fluctuations.

Surge protection can rapidly  shutdown slow synchronous rectifiers and this is especially critical for system stability and reliability when strikes  occur on opposite polarity of the AC line.  Additionally, the HP1010 offers a rich set of programmable protections,  which means more flexibility and unique designs. For example,  overvoltage/undervoltage protections for both input and output, open-circuit protection, and much more,  which can be configured or disabled independently based on your preference.

The HP1010 features intelligent switching modes (CCM, DCM, and Burst Mode) to adapt to different load conditions,  achieving good light-load efficiency. Frequency dithering effectively improves the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of  TPPFC power systems. And above all, designing with HP1010 has never been simpler.

   

As a first in the industry, the HP1010 is suitable for a wide range of power systems,  including cloud computing/data center, AI, 5G/telecom, industrial, ultra-high-density (UHD) power supplies and so forth.

Key features of HP1010:

●Highly flexible digital PWM, selectable frequencies from 20 kHz to 200 kHz

25 MHz ADC situated in high-performance analog front-end

Sophisticated digital control loop

Smooth current at AC zero-crossings

Frequency dithering for better EMI

Multimode operations (CCM, DCM, and Burst mode)

Fast loop response

High-voltage DC input

RMS power measurement

Intelligent relay and inrush current control

X-capacitor discharge

Comprehensive fault protections

Low power consumption, supply current as low as 1 mA in sleep mode

I2C and UART interfaces through GUI

4 mm x 4 mm QFN-24L package, Figure 1

High Integration: simple but not simplistic

The HP1010 is packaged in a 4 mm x 4 mm QFN-24L, consistent with high-speed ADC, comparators,  and other analog front-end components. The peripheral circuitry is streamlined in a compact form factor that occupies a  small PCB area, saving circuit board space and lowering BOM cost.

   

Hynetek patented technology: expertise of no other

The novel current sense is materialized through a pair of current transformers applied to the fast leg of this topology.  Once CBC is triggered on multiple accounts, the HP1010 provides the flexibility to shut down, automatically reset,  or power off then restart the system. Such configurations and real-time debugging can be accomplished through the  graphical user interface (GUI) in Figure 4.

   

Programmable open-loop soft start at zero crossings:

The parasitic capacitance of the Power FETs on the slow leg of Totem-Pole topology varies across different vendors. The  number and width of PWM pulses during zero transitions can be customized so as to optimize the voltage discharge process  on the switching node.

Similarly, such design flexibility is also available for the unequal delay time of disparate relays,  which ultimately yields a safer and more efficient system.

   

Abstain from reverse current when AC input drops:

Thanks to high-speed AC voltage feedforward,  the duty cycle tracks real-time changes of AC input. When the drop of input voltage is detected,  the HP1010 immediately switches off fast synchronous rectifiers of Totem-Pole PFC,  hence effectively preventing reverse current. The measured results are as shown in Figure 6.

   

 Lightning protection: 

Lightning strikes stress the system with sharp spikes,  either in or out-of-phase with AC voltages. Controllers must be able to quickly detect the polarity of the input voltage  and adjust accordingly. Otherwise,  it’s easy to damage the subsequent circuits. The HP1010 has shown a superb performance on this issue,  with rapid lightning detection followed by instant swit-off of the power FETs, given in Figure 7 and Figure 8.

   

PF and THD testing:

Respectively,  Figure 9 and Figure 10 present PF and THD measurement results of the HP1010 at 110 Vac and 230 Vac inputs. Rather decent  performance has been achieved for both parameters.

   

Detailed information on this 600 W evaluation board is listed below:

● Input voltage range: 90 VAC ~ 264 VAC

● Output voltage: 400 VDC

● Output power: 600 W

● Typical efficiency: 98.7%

   

As a part of the total solution,  the HP3600 is a dual-channel isolated gate driver from the Hynetek HySwitchfamily.  Paired with the HP1010,  Totem-Pole system is readily within your reach.

  

The HP3600 features a strong driving capability of 4 A/6 A source and sink current. Safe and fast driving performance is secured by 150 kV/μs Common Mode Transient Immunity (CMTI) and 48 ns propagation delay. VDDA/VDDB supports up to 33 V,  and VDDI operates in a wide input range of 3 V to 18 V,  suitable for either analog or digital controller interfaces. All power pins have undervoltage lockout (UVLO) protection  with a threshold of 3 V, ideal for isolated applications of GaN MOSFETs.

The total solution (HP1010+HP3600) represents a milestone of innovation here in Hynetek. Building a green future,  Henetek believes in IC-Intelligent and IC-Energetic. There will be more energy-saving products from Hynetek in  contribution to carbon neutrality and advancement of the green economy.

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